Why It Works
- Aquafaba, the liquid inside a can of chickpeas, whips up into a stiff meringue that delivers light, fluffy pancakes with no eggs at all.
- Adding lemon zest gives the pancakes the complex tang and aroma found in buttermilk and sour cream.
Recipes and techniques generally advance in baby steps. It's rare that you find a technique so far out of left field that it changes the way people think about food overnight. Sous vide cooking is up there, as is no-knead bread. In the world of vegan cuisine, nothing has shaken things up like aquafaba—the term for the liquid inside a can of cooked beans.
Aquafaba and How to Use it
Here are the basics: Take the liquid from inside a can of chickpeas (the stuff you'd normally discard) and place it in a stand mixer. Now beat it and watch as it transforms into a creamy, fine, stable foam with the texture, density, and many of the cooking properties of an egg white–based meringue. I couldn't believe my eyes the first time I tried it. What's even more amazing is that it was discovered not by chefs or scientists, but by an off-duty French singer who was experimenting with vegan egg substitutes at home. It was later popularized by an American software engineer.
These days, there are web pages and Facebook groups devoted to cooking with the stuff, and, as an egg replacement in vegan cooking, it's quite promising. However, I think it's being oversold to a degree. I haven't, for instance, been able to make an acceptable cake with it, as some have suggested, and it doesn't work to simply replace eggs with this stuff in recipes—it lacks the structure-reinforcing capabilities of egg proteins, and thus collapses much more easily when incorporated into doughs and batters before cooking.
It is, however, great for some things I've tried—it bakes into perfect meringue cookies, and you can make a gorgeous, Italian meringue–style vegan topping for lemon pies and other desserts, for example—and I've been slowly adding to that list.
This time around: pancakes.
Making Vegan Pancakes with Aquafaba
In my first attempt at this, I simply adapted my standard pancake recipe. It's pretty straightforward: Combine flour, baking powder, baking soda, sugar, and salt; mix in buttermilk, sour cream, vanilla, melted butter, egg yolks, and beaten egg whites; then cook on a griddle. I started by replacing the buttermilk and sour cream with almond milk spiked with vinegar, the butter with vegetable oil, and the eggs with a few tablespoons of aquafaba whipped into stiff peaks. The pancakes were a little dense and gummy. I needed to make a few more changes for them to work right.
I knew that sugar can help stabilize standard meringues by increasing the viscosity of the liquid. Adding some extra sugar and incorporating it along with the aquafaba helped keep my pancakes from deflating as they cooked. An extra teaspoon of baking powder also helped in that regard.
Being extremely careful when incorporating the aquafaba into the pancake batter was also key. After combining my wet and dry ingredients, excluding the aquafaba, I added the whipped aquafaba and folded it all together gently until it was homogeneous, trying to keep as much air in the mixture as I possibly could.
Incidentally, aquafaba increases in volume even more than egg whites do as it's whipped. Four tablespoons of the liquid (your average 14-ounce can of chickpeas will yield about 2/3 cup liquid) whip up into over two cups of meringue! For flavor's sake, you want to seek out low-sodium chickpeas, if you can find them. It takes much longer to whip up aquafaba to suitably stiff peaks than it does egg whites—about six minutes at high speed. (The good news is that, unlike egg whites, aquafaba can't be over-whipped, so feel free to turn on that mixer and walk away. Even if you forget about it, your meringue will be fine.)
Buttermilk and sour cream have a tang and aroma far more complex than plain old white vinegar, so I also decided to add some lemon zest to the mix.
The final trick is to cook the pancakes over lower heat than you would an egg-based batter. That aquafaba mixture takes longer to dry out and doesn't have the protein-setting properties of eggs. Try to cook them too fast, and they come out too moist, turning gummy and mushy in the process. Cook them over lower heat, and they come out drier and much fluffier.
I'm not going to lie: These pancakes are not quite as good, from a pure flavor/texture perspective, as egg-based pancakes, but they are far, far better than those made by any other vegan technique I've ever tried. For vegans who have longed for light and fluffy pancakes and waffles, there has been no better advance in cooking techniques that I can think of.
Ditto that for vegans who have been longing for a stack of something warm and fluffy to pour maple syrup over.
Now to get back to work on that cake...
April 13, 2016
For the Basic Dry Pancake Mix:
10 ounces all-purpose flour (about 2 cups; 280g)
2 teaspoons (8g) baking powder
1/2 teaspoon (3g) baking soda
1 teaspoon (4g) kosher salt
For Each Batch of Pancakes:
4 tablespoons (60ml) liquid from 1 can of low-sodium chickpeas (reserve remaining liquid and chickpeas for another use)
4 tablespoons (60g) sugar
1 2/3 cups (about 14 ounces; 400ml) almond, rice, or soy milk
1/4 cup (60ml) vegetable oil, plus more for cooking
2 teaspoons (10ml) vanilla extract
2 teaspoons (3g) zest from 1 lemon
2 teaspoons (10ml) cider vinegar or distilled white vinegar
Vegan butter substitute and maple syrup, for serving
For the Dry Mix: In a large bowl, combine flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt and whisk to combine.
For the Pancakes: Place chickpea liquid and sugar in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a whisk attachment. Whisk on high speed until stiff peaks form, about 6 minutes. Meanwhile, combine almond milk, vegetable oil, vanilla extract, lemon zest, and vinegar in a bowl. Add dry mix to wet mix and fold with a rubber spatula to combine (the mixture should remain lumpy). Fold in whipped chickpea liquid, being careful not to let it deflate too much.
Heat a large heavy-bottomed nonstick skillet over medium heat for 5 minutes (or use an electric griddle). Add a small amount of vegan butter or oil to skillet or griddle and spread with a paper towel until no visible butter or oil remains. Reduce heat to low. Use a 1/4-cup dry measure to place 4 pancakes in skillet and cook until bubbles start to appear on top and the bottoms are golden brown, about 3 minutes. Carefully flip pancakes and cook on second side until golden brown and completely set, about 3 minutes longer. Serve pancakes immediately, or keep warm on a wire rack set on a rimmed baking sheet in a warm oven while you cook the remaining 3 batches. Serve with warm maple syrup and vegan butter.
|Nutrition Facts (per serving)|
|Servings: 4 to 6|
|Amount per serving|
|% Daily Value*|
|Total Fat 12g||15%|
|Saturated Fat 1g||5%|
|Total Carbohydrate 66g||24%|
|Dietary Fiber 2g||6%|
|Total Sugars 28g|
|Vitamin C 1mg||3%|
|*The % Daily Value (DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a food serving contributes to a daily diet. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice.|