Taiwanese Pork Belly Buns (Gua Bao) Recipe

Braised pork belly + pickles + herbs + peanut powder = classic Taiwanese snack.

Two Taiwanese pork belly buns (Gua Bao) placed on a white ceramic plate on a yellow background.

Serious Eats / Mariel De La Cruz

Why This Recipe Works

  • While it can take up to two hours, braising the pork belly is very easy: It's simply browned in a skillet and then cooked in the same pan with an aromatic broth until tender.
  • Traditional recipes often call for rock sugar, but this version offers easy substitution options like brown sugar.

Despite all the iterations found on menus across the United States, there is only one true Taiwanese pork belly bun, or gua bao. The classic fluffy steamed bun is filled with a rich, meaty, salty, savory slice of braised pork belly, but it's the three accouterments served with it that are its true signature. To be considered the real thing, gua bao must always have pickled mustard greens, cilantro, and peanut powder.

Pork belly is cut into slabs, then braised with soy sauce and five-spice powder.

Serious Eats / Cathy Erway

Let's go over each of the fillings. First, there's the pork belly, which is cut into bun-sized slices and then red-braised, which means it's stewed in soy sauce and rice wine that's flavored with five-spice powder and other aromatics. This style of pork is commonly found on Taiwanese tables, and is often served with sides that help cut the richness, such as lightly cooked vegetables and/or pickled vegetables like mustard greens.


Serious Eats / Cathy Erway

That's why pickled mustard greens are an integral part of gua bao—it's the classic pairing in bite-sized portions. These pickles are made by lacto-fermenting a head of mustard greens (a process similar to making sauerkraut, kimchi, or Jewish deli pickles), which gives them a tangy flavor and turns them a dark, not entirely beautiful lizardy green color. The greens are then shredded or finely chopped.

The five key ingredients on gua bao: steamed buns, braised pork belly, pickled mustard greens, fresh cilantro, and peanut powder.

Serious Eats / Cathy Erway

To balance the fermented flavor and drab color of the mustard greens, fresh, bright green cilantro is added as well. Cilantro is a common topping in Taiwan, sprinkled on everything from soup to ice cream. When chopped, it has a way of sticking to whatever it's on, which is especially helpful in the case of a somewhat messy bun. To maintain its crisp bite, the cilantro is typically chopped with its stems.

Lastly, the bun is topped with peanut powder. Unlike the crushed peanuts commonly used in Southeast Asian cuisines, Taiwanese peanut powder is blended with rock sugar, and ground quite fine. You can make it yourself in a food processor or blender, swapping in brown sugar or raw sugar for rock sugar instead.

All combined, the Taiwanese pork belly bun is a messy, colorful, glorious combination of salty, sweet, pungent, and fresh flavors, with multiple textures to boot.

April 2014

Recipe Details

Taiwanese Pork Belly Buns (Gua Bao) Recipe

Active 30 mins
Total 2 hrs 30 mins
Serves 2 to 3 servings

Braised pork belly + pickles + herbs + peanut powder = classic Taiwanese snack.


For the Pork Belly:

  • 2 tablespoons vegetable or peanut oil

  • One (1-pound) slab skin-on pork belly, cut into 2-inch strips, then sliced 1/4 inch thick

  • 2 medium cloves garlic, crushed

  • 2 (1/8th-inch) slices fresh ginger (unpeeled)

  • 1 star anise pod (optional)

  • 1 small fresh red chile, such as Thai chile (optional)

  • 2 tablespoons rock, brown or raw sugar

  • 1/4 cup Asian rice wine

  • 1/2 teaspoon five-spice powder (see note)

  • 1/4 cup dark soy sauce

  • 1/4 cup light soy sauce

  • 4 cups water

For the Buns and Toppings:

  • 1/2 cup roasted, unsalted peanuts

  • 1 tablespoon rock, brown, or raw sugar (see note)

  • 6 fresh or frozen Chinese-style steamed buns (see note)

  • 6 sprigs fresh cilantro, leaves and tender stems chopped

  • 4 tablespoons coarsely chopped Asian pickled mustard greens (see note)


  1. For the Pork Belly: Heat the oil over medium-high heat in a large skillet or wok. Cook pork belly until lightly browned on the bottom, about 3 minutes. Flip pork belly and cook until lightly browned, about 2 minutes longer. Transfer pork belly to a plate and set aside.

    A two-image collage. The top image shows slices of pork belly being cooked in hot oil inside of a seasoned carbon steel wok. The bottom image shows the pork belly slices in the wok, but now golden brown, showing they've been cooked.

    Serious Eats / Mariel De La Cruz

  2. In the same skillet, add garlic and ginger and cook over medium-high heat, stirring, until fragrant. Add star anise and chile (if using), and sugar and cook, stirring, until the sugar is melted and bubbling, about 2 minutes. Add rice wine and bring to a boil, stirring until sugar dissolves, about 2 minutes. Add five-spice powder, dark and light soy sauces, and water and bring to a boil.

    A four-image collage. The top left image shows garlic, ginger, star anise, chile, and sugar added to the wok, which has had the pork belly removed. The top right image shows the sugar now melted and bubbling in wok. The bottom left image shows rice wine vinegar added to the wok, with all of the contents at a boil. The bottom right image shows five-spice powder, dark and light soy sauces, and water added to the contents of the wok, again coming to a boil.

    Serious Eats / Mariel De La Cruz

  3. Return pork belly to the skillet and reduce heat to low. Cover skillet and cook until pork belly is very tender, at least 1 hour or preferably 2 hours.

    A two-image collage. The top image shows the pork belly added to the liquid sauce within the wok and reduced to a simmer. The bottom image shows the tender pork belly inside of the wok. The sauce is now quite dark and reduced and looks glossy.

    Serious Eats / Mariel De La Cruz

  4. For the Buns and Toppings: Meanwhile, combine peanuts and sugar in a blender or food processor and pulse, stopping to scrape down the sides, until the mixture resembles a coarse powder, about 1 minute.

    Peanuts and sugar pulsed into a coarse powder inside of a food processor bowl.

    Serious Eats / Mariel De La Cruz

  5. Set a steamer over a pot of boiling water. Add buns, cover steamer and cook until buns are heated through and fluffy, about 3 minutes.

    Bao buns on a bamboo steamer set over a pot of boiling water, showing the buns are now hot and fluffy.

    Serious Eats / Mariel De La Cruz

  6. To Serve: Spread pickled mustard greens inside each steamed bun and set a piece of pork belly on top of mustard greens. Top pork belly with a pinch of chopped cilantro and a sprinkle of peanut powder. Serve immediately.

    A two-image collage. The left image shows pickled mustard greens spread on the inside of steamed bun. The right image shows pork belly set on top of mustard greens and topped with a pinch of chopped cilantro and sprinkled with peanut powder.

    Serious Eats / Mariel De La Cruz


Find five-spice powder, fresh or frozen Chinese-style steamed buns, jarred pickled mustard greens, and rock sugar at Asian grocery stores.

Nutrition Facts (per serving)
743 Calories
42g Fat
54g Carbs
38g Protein
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Nutrition Facts
Servings: 2 to 3
Amount per serving
Calories 743
% Daily Value*
Total Fat 42g 54%
Saturated Fat 12g 59%
Cholesterol 95mg 32%
Sodium 1375mg 60%
Total Carbohydrate 54g 20%
Dietary Fiber 7g 24%
Total Sugars 21g
Protein 38g
Vitamin C 64mg 321%
Calcium 171mg 13%
Iron 3mg 19%
Potassium 1208mg 26%
*The % Daily Value (DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a food serving contributes to a daily diet. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice.
(Nutrition information is calculated using an ingredient database and should be considered an estimate.)