Spanish-Style Garlic Shrimp (Gambas al Ajillo) Recipe

Juicy, tender shrimp packed with plenty of garlic.

A plate of Spanish-style garlic shrimp, gambas al ajillo

Serious Eats / J. Kenji Lopez-Alt

Why It Works

  • Buying frozen, shell-on shrimp with the heads removed ensures the freshest shrimp with the best taste and texture.
  • Marinating the shrimp in salt, baking soda, and garlic adds juiciness, crunch, and a bit of flavor.
  • Infusing the oil with shrimp shells and garlic creates layers of flavor.

Sweet shrimp in garlicky olive oil is just about the ideal tapas bar snack. The sweet shrimp and garlic aroma go perfectly with a nice sherry, while the leftover oil at the bottom of the earthenware dish is the ideal sopping-up liquid for good Spanish bread. It's also one of those dishes that, even when mediocre, is still pretty darn good. I've eaten enough mediocre gambas al ajillo in my day—even in Spain!—to say that with confidence.

But when it's done perfectly, when the shrimp are juicy and tender with a crunchy pop, when the oil sings with a chorus of layered garlic flavors, it can be transcendent. That's what we're after today.

The traditional preparation for gambas al ajillo is overwhelmingly simple: heat up olive oil in an earthenware cazuela on a fire until hot. Add some slivered garlic and shrimp, cook them briefly, perhaps with a touch of red pepper or a bay leaf, finish it off with a shot of brandy or sherry vinegar, and serve it all with a sprinkle of parsley.

Using that method gives you good results, but you can do better. Let's break it down one element at a time.

The Shrimp

Head-on shrimp are generally pricier than their headless brethren, but here's the truth: they're usually worse as well. The issue is that shrimp heads contain powerful enzymes that start to break down shrimp flesh as soon as they die. Within hours, head-on shrimp will become noticeably mushier. Headless shrimp, on the other hand, have their heads removed before shipping, which means that their bodies retain their fresh, briny crunch. Unless you can get your shrimp live (a possibility if you live near a good Asian market), you're better off going with the headless version.

While we're at it, you're also better off buying frozen shrimp. Why is that? It's because pretty much every shrimp you'll ever see at the supermarket or fishmonger was frozen at sea. Those "fresh" shrimp they're selling? They are frozen shrimp that have been thawed out at the store, and who knows how long they've been sitting there thawed? Your best bet is to get them frozen and thaw them yourself.

Deveining a pile of raw shrimp for Spanish-style garlic shrimp.

Serious Eats / J. Kenji Lopez-Alt

I buy regular shell-on shrimp for three reasons. First, shelled shrimp are often mangled and unappetizing. Secondly, shell-on shrimp tend to be much cheaper. Finally, those shells pack a sweet, flavorful punch. Remember that scene in Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory where Gene Wilder sings that melancholy song while sipping sweet nectar out of a flower-shaped tea cup, then finishes by eating the tea cup? Yeah, shrimp are sort of like that. Throw out the shell and you're missing out.

The question, of course, is how do you make the most out of both the flesh and the shell? I use a three-step process. First, I marinate the shrimp. Next, I infuse oil with flavor from the shell. Finally, I gently cook the marinated shrimp in the flavored oil, doubling up on shrimp flavor. And while I'm at it, I use the same process to introduce layers of garlic flavor.

The Garlic

Depending on how you introduce and cook garlic, its flavors can vary pretty drastically. When it comes to my raw shrimp, I like to add plain grated garlic. The shrimp only cook for a few moments later on, so the garlic remains nearly raw—it cooks just enough to get rid of its raw edge, while still maintaining its spicy bite.

Grating raw garlic over a bowl of raw shrimp

Serious Eats / J. Kenji Lopez-Alt

The Marinade

Oil and salt also go into the marinade, along with a dash of baking soda. Why salt and baking soda? It's a trick I learned when working on my recipe for The Best Wonton Soup.

A container of baking soda, which helps maintain a crunchy texture in shrimp.

Serious Eats / J. Kenji Lopez-Alt

Salt acts like a brine, helping the shrimp retain their juiciness, while baking soda causes the flesh to turn a little crunchy.

I set the marinating shrimp aside at room temperature for the salt and baking soda to work their magic while I start working on the rest of the oil.

Let's get one thing straight: Spanish-style shrimp is an oily dish. Some would argue that the shrimp and garlic-infused olive oil are actually the best parts of the dish. An extra treat for you to sop up with your bread when you get to the bottom of the bowl.

Sauteeing shrimp shells in olive oil for Spanish-style garlic shrimp.

Serious Eats / J. Kenji Lopez-Alt

Which is essentially to say: be generous with it. I use a full half cup of olive oil for a pound of shrimp. As I mentioned, I add my shrimp shells to the oil to infuse. At this stage, I also add some smashed garlic cloves and a pinch of red pepper flakes (even better is a strip of dried guajillo or other sweet and fruity chiles). Set over moderately low heat for about ten minutes, the garlic softens and sweetens and the shrimp shells turn a deep ruby red. Both of them impart sweetness and an intense aroma to that oil.

A large quantity of sliced garlic frying in olive oil for Spanish-style garlic shrimp.

Serious Eats / J. Kenji Lopez-Alt

After the oil is infused, it's time to add the final layer of garlic: fried fresh slices. I fry the slices in the strained oil until they turn golden brown before returning the marinated shrimp to the pan. The key here is to cook the shrimp just until they're cooked through. They go from crisp and tender to tough and chewy in a matter of moments. It's better to err on the side of undercooked, as they'll continue to cook on the way to the table.

A dash of sherry vinegar and a handful of chopped parsley add some bright flavors to the sweet and oily mix.

By the way, that thing that those show-offy Spanish restaurants like to do, where your shrimp comes in a hot cazuela sizzling away in bubbly-hot oil? It looks cool, but all it actually succeeds at is ensuring that your shrimp overcook as they sit there, bubbling away. Steer clear!

I don't always eat shrimp, but when I do, I like them garlicky, and this dish delivers it in spades.

Recipe Facts

Active: 30 mins
Total: 30 mins
Serves: 2 servings

Rate & Comment

Ingredients

  • 12 cloves garlic

  • 1 pound large shrimp, peeled, shells reserved

  • 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil

  • Kosher salt

  • 1/4 teaspoon baking soda

  • Pinch red pepper flakes, or a 1-inch piece dried guajillo chile

  • 1 1/2 teaspoons sherry vinegar

  • 2 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley leaves

Directions

  1. Finely mince 4 garlic cloves and place in large bowl. Smash 4 cloves under the flat side of a knife and place in a large skillet. Thinly slice remaining four garlic cloves and set aside.

  2. Add shrimp to bowl with minced garlic. Add 3 tablespoons olive oil, 3/4 teaspoon kosher salt, and baking soda. Toss to combine thoroughly and set aside at room temperature.

  3. Add shrimp shells to skillet with smashed garlic and add remaining olive oil and pepper flakes. Set over medium-low to low heat and cook, stirring and tossing occasionally, until shells are deep ruby red, garlic is pale golden brown, and oil is intensely aromatic, about 10 minutes. Oil should be gently bubbling the whole time. When ready, strain through a fine-mesh strainer into a small bowl, tossing and pressing the shrimp shells to extract as much oil as possible. Discard shells and garlic.

    Sauteed shells draining over a bowl of oil for Spanish-style garlic shrimp

    Serious Eats / J. Kenji Lopez-Alt

  4. Return flavored oil to skillet and heat over medium-high heat until shimmering. Add sliced garlic and cook, stirring constantly, until pale golden brown, about 1 minute. Add shrimp and cook, tossing and stirring constantly until shrimp are barely cooked through, about 2 minutes. Add sherry vinegar and parsley and toss to combine. Season to taste with salt. Serve immediately.

    Spanish-style garlic shrimp sauteeing in a pan

    Serious Eats / J. Kenji Lopez-Alt

Nutrition Facts (per serving)
666 Calories
57g Fat
8g Carbs
32g Protein
Show Full Nutrition Label Hide Full Nutrition Label
×
Nutrition Facts
Servings: 2
Amount per serving
Calories 666
% Daily Value*
Total Fat 57g 74%
Saturated Fat 8g 42%
Cholesterol 286mg 95%
Sodium 2097mg 91%
Total Carbohydrate 8g 3%
Dietary Fiber 3g 11%
Total Sugars 0g
Protein 32g
Vitamin C 7mg 34%
Calcium 186mg 14%
Iron 2mg 12%
Potassium 378mg 8%
*The % Daily Value (DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a food serving contributes to a daily diet. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice.
(Nutrition information is calculated using an ingredient database and should be considered an estimate.)