Gyudon (Japanese Simmered Beef and Rice Bowls) Recipe

Steamed rice topped with beef and onions simmered in sake and soy sauce is a quick, easy meal.

One pot and 20 minutes for this Japanese fast-food classic. J. Kenji López-Alt

Why It Works

  • A balance of sweet and savory ingredients complements the sweet and savory flavors of beef and onions.
  • One-pot simmering is a technique that requires no experience, making this a simple, foolproof meal.

If ramen is like the hamburger of Japan, gyudon—steamed rice topped with beef and onions simmered in sake and soy sauce—is its hot dog: a quick, easy meal that's equally at home at the food court or on your kitchen table.

You know that scene at the beginning of Saturday Night Fever where John Travolta orders a couple of slices of pizza from a sidewalk window, stacks them on top of each other, gives them the New York fold, and struts down the street, meal in hand? That is a scene you are unlikely to see in Japan, and it's not because disco wasn't popular (it was), or because Japanese people have a thing against John Travolta (they don't), or even because they don't love pizza (they do).

The issue is the whole walking-while-eating thing. It just doesn't happen in Japan. Going to the 7-Eleven to pick up some pizza-flavored steamed buns? You're taking them home before you dig in. Hitting up Starbucks for a coffee? You're standing there and finishing the coffee before you step back out on the street.

Because of this, the traditional fast-food culture in Japan is quite different from that of the US. Fewer sandwiches and handheld snacks, more hastily slurped or shoveled bowls of food. All this is changing as cultural exchange with the West increases, of course, but ramen, curry, and rice bowls still remain staples of the quick-dining scene.

Head into any Japanese shopping-mall food court (or the food court of a Japanese chain in the US, like Mitsuwa or Yoshinoya) and I guarantee gyudon will be on the menu. What's fantastic is that it's also incredibly easy to make at home, requiring only a single pan and virtually no experience or skill whatsoever. If you can boil water, you can make gyudon.

Sliced onion and a knife resting on a cutting board.

Choosing the Right Beef

There are a couple of keys to good gyudon. First is getting the beef. It's typically made with ribeye or chuck that's been shaved extra thin on a meat slicer. You'll be able to find good meat for gyudon in Japanese supermarkets, but if you don't have access to that, any beef intended for Philly cheesesteaks will work (even the frozen stuff!). Alternatively, you can buy a chuck steak, place it in the freezer until it's very firm but not frozen solid, then slice it as thinly as you can with a knife. It's okay if the meat ends up shredding a bit. Perfection is not what we're going for here.

For the onions, I like to slice them radially into slivers rather than rings. I do that by first cutting off the stem and the root, then slicing the onion in half from pole to pole (the knife should go through the spaces where the stem and the root used to be). After that, I lay each onion half flat on the cutting board and slice it from pole to pole, angling the knife so that it's always cutting toward the center of the onion.

If you found that hard to follow, don't worry. It's just me being overly anal about something that ultimately makes very little difference in what is meant to be a simple dish.

Once the onions are sliced, I place them in a pot and cover them with a mixture of dashi (the basic Japanese broth made with kelp and smoked bonito), sake, soy sauce, and sugar. This sweet-savory-salty combo is the backbone of Japanese cooking, and you'll see it come up time and time again.

Homemade dashi is all well and good if you've got some already made, and even making it from scratch takes no more than a few minutes, but this is a case in which powdered Hondashi will do just fine, given the other strongly flavored ingredients.

If you happen to enjoy braised daikon, you can also add slices of daikon radish with the onions at this point. It all simmers together just until the onions are tender.

Quickly Cooking the Beef

Next, in goes the beef. Because it's so thinly sliced, it will cook very quickly, losing its red color almost instantly. The goal is to cook it all down until the broth reduces to an intensely flavored sauce that penetrates the meat. With a typical braise, this can take hours. With the thinly shaved beef in gyudon, it takes just a couple of minutes. I like to stir in some grated ginger during the last minute or so of simmering, which preserves some of the ginger's fresh heat.

Gyudon in a bowl.
J. Kenji López-Alt

Once the beef is cooked, I divide it all between a few bowls of rice. (Confession time: I didn't even cook this rice from dried. I used one of those precooked, microwaveable trays. Slightly mushier than fresh rice, but with all the liquid from the gyudon, it honestly makes little difference.) You can eat it as is, but I like to add a little pile of hot beni-shoga (pickled ginger), some sliced scallions, and a pinch of togarashi (Japanese chile powder).

I've never met a bowl of gyudon that couldn't be improved with a runny poached egg, either.

Gyudon in a bowl with a poached egg.
Photograph and video: J. Kenji López-Alt

If you want to go all in, do it the Japanese way, with a raw egg broken on top and stirred in, tamago kake gohan–style. It's not for everyone, so I'll understand if you want to pass on it. I'll judge you only about as much as I judge people who don't like sauerkraut on their hot dogs.


How to Make Gyudon (Japanese Simmered Beef and Rice Bowls)

July 2016

Recipe Facts

Cook: 20 mins
Active: 20 mins
Total: 20 mins
Serves: 2 servings

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  • 1 small onion, slivered (about 4 ounces; 120g)

  • 1/2 cup (120ml) homemade dashi, or the equivalent in Hondashi (see notes)

  • 1/4 cup (60ml) dry sake

  • 2 tablespoons (30ml) soy sauce

  • 1 tablespoon (12g) sugar, plus more to taste

  • 1/2 pound (225g) thinly shaved beef ribeye or chuck steak (see notes)

  • 1 teaspoon (5ml) grated fresh ginger

  • Salt

  • 2 cups cooked white rice

  • 2 large poached eggs (optional)

  • Sliced scallions

  • Beni-shoga (see notes)

  • Togarashi (see notes)


  1. Combine onion, dashi, sake, soy sauce, and sugar in a medium saucepan or saucier and bring to a simmer over medium heat. Cook, stirring occasionally, until onion is softened, about 5 minutes.

    Onion slices simmering in a mixture of dashi, sake, soy sauce, and sugar.
  2. Add beef and cook, stirring until beef is cooked through and liquid has reduced down to an intensely flavored broth, about 5 minutes. Stir in ginger and simmer for 1 minute longer. Adjust seasoning with salt and sugar to taste.

    Collage of beef simmering in a mixture of a mixture of dashi, sake, soy sauce, and sugar and being transferred to a rice bowl.
  3. Divide rice between 2 to 3 bowls and top with beef and sauce mixture. Garnish each bowl with a poached egg (if using), sliced scallions, beni-shoga, and togarashi. Serve immediately.


Homemade dashi is nice, but not necessary for this simple dish, which has so many other strong flavors. Look for thinly shaved beef at Japanese markets, ask your butcher to shave it for you, or use frozen shaved steak intended for Philly cheesesteaks. The beef can be cooked directly from the freezer if using frozen; just add a few minutes to the cooking time, and make sure to carefully stir the beef and break it apart as it thaws. Beni-shoga is bright red pickled hot ginger. Togarashi is Japanese chile powder, which comes in both ichimi (chiles only) and shichimi (chiles blended with other dried aromatics) versions. Either will work on this dish. All of these ingredients can be found in any Japanese market or well-stocked Western supermarket.

Nutrition Facts (per serving)
638 Calories
21g Fat
62g Carbs
40g Protein
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Nutrition Facts
Servings: 2
Amount per serving
Calories 638
% Daily Value*
Total Fat 21g 27%
Saturated Fat 8g 42%
Cholesterol 109mg 36%
Sodium 1223mg 53%
Total Carbohydrate 62g 23%
Dietary Fiber 2g 7%
Total Sugars 11g
Protein 40g
Vitamin C 5mg 25%
Calcium 60mg 5%
Iron 6mg 31%
Potassium 675mg 14%
*The % Daily Value (DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a food serving contributes to a daily diet. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice.
(Nutrition information is calculated using an ingredient database and should be considered an estimate.)