Southern Cornbread Dressing With Oysters and Sausage Recipe

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A classic cornbread dressing made with oysters. Photograph and video: Vicky Wasik

Why It Works

  • Oysters add a savory, briny flavor to the stuffing without making it overly seafood-y.
  • Drying the bread allows it to absorb more flavorful moisture, like chicken stock and oyster liquor.
  • Fennel and tarragon blend beautifully with the oysters.

When I was a wee lad growing up in Brooklyn, I'd pluck foot-long oysters from the Gowanus Canal, walk on roads paved with oyster shells, and slurp up iced oysters on the half shell from vendors hawking the city's original street food. Man, was it glorious...if only it were true. A guy can dream, right? Sadly, by the time I came along, the Gowanus was a toxic mess, the streets had been paved over with asphalt, and the oyster carts had been replaced by hot dog and pretzel sellers.

The heyday of the oyster, though, is an important era to remember. It can be hard to imagine now, but before pollution and overfishing put an end to most of the region's wild oyster beds, those cold, briny mollusks were one of the most plentiful foods available on the Eastern Seaboard and the Gulf Coast. They were cheap and nutritious, and they lent themselves to countless preparations. If you've ever been confused as to how oysters ended up in a Thanksgiving stuffing, the answer lies in their former ubiquity. People had oysters coming out of their ears, and they had bread, and they needed to find creative ways to use it all up and make it tasty.

The abundance of oysters—and therefore oyster stuffing—wasn't unique to the Americas. According to this website focused on historic New England cooking, evidence of oyster stuffing can be found in British cookbooks dating to the 17th and 18th centuries. It makes sense that immigrants to North America would continue the tradition upon discovering heaps of oysters in their new homeland.

Shucking an oyster.

Serious Eats / Vicky Wasik

And so it is that oyster stuffing can be found just about anywhere oysters themselves grow, especially during Thanksgiving. Far from being a Turkey Day anomaly, the dish is practically a logical conclusion. From Northern versions made with wheat or white bread to Southern ones with cornbread, the nation has long been in consensus about oysters' rightful place in stuffing—even as we've been fiercely divided on whether it should actually be called "dressing."

If you have yet to experience the tradition, perhaps this is the year to start.

Oysters in My Thanksgiving Stuffing? Why in the World Would I Do Something Like That?

Thus far we've discussed the history of adding oysters to stuffings. But historic precedent doesn't automatically equate with deliciousness. In the case of oyster stuffing, though, I'm telling you now that deliciousness is guaranteed.

Adding fresh oysters to stuffing is not unlike adding a splash of fish sauce, anchovies, or miso to a dish to deepen its flavor. That's because, while not fermented or cured like those other ingredients, they're still a rich source of glutamic acid, an amino acid that delivers a payload of savory flavor, along with plenty of briny sea salt.

If you read this site often, you may be familiar with our habit of slipping fish sauce into dishes where you normally wouldn't expect to find it, with the goal of intensifying their flavor—but not their fishiness. For example, Kenji puts fish sauce in his ragù Bolognese, and I add a little to my French onion soup. Whenever we do that, we always include a disclaimer: Don't worry, your food won't taste like fish sauce. Well, in the case of oyster stuffing, I can't quite say the same. You will taste the oysters. Even so, they're really more of a background flavor, and the overall effect is less oyster?!?! and more BOOM, BAM, WOW, YUM.

It's just really freaking good.

Okay, So Maybe I'll Consider Trying It. What Do I Need to Know to Make Oyster Stuffing the Right Way?

The main thing to know is that there's very little to know. You literally just add chopped raw oysters and their liquor to the stuffing, then bake it. It couldn't be easier.

As easy as it is, there are still a few things worth pointing out.

First, it helps to know that oysters are a stuffing switch-hitter, just as delicious in wheat-bread stuffings as they are in cornbread dressings. That said, I personally wouldn't want oysters in a sweet cornbread dressing (then again, I also don't really want a sweet cornbread stuffing at all—I prefer savory cornbread for that). Add them to whichever kind you want.

The second thing to consider is what kind of oysters to add to your stuffing. There are too many oyster varieties out there to test them all, so I limited myself to a more focused question: Do you need to add fresh shucked oysters, or will canned, pre-shucked raw ones work?

Shucking an oyster.

Serious Eats / Vicky Wasik

I think this may be the single most important question, since the prospect of shucking fresh oysters, especially when there's so much other cooking to do for Thanksgiving, is likely to scare most folks away. Wouldn't it be great if you didn't actually need to shuck those oysters? Well, good news, because you don't.

A can of pre-shucked oysters.
Pre-shucked oysters will save you time and effort and still taste great in an oyster stuffing.

Serious Eats / Vicky Wasik

I whipped up two batches, one using fresh oysters I shucked myself and the other using oysters from those pop-top cans of pre-shucked ones you get from the fishmonger. Both worked well—there were subtle flavor differences, but I attributed those to the extra-briny flavor of the fresh variety I had bought, versus the milder flavor of the pre-shucked ones. Once they're combined with all the other ingredients in the stuffing and baked, the quality differences aren't noticeable.

Using kitchen shears to cut the oysters right in their container.
Kitchen shears are the best no-mess way to chop up your oysters.

Serious Eats /Vicky Wasik

Here's one helpful tip, no matter what type of oyster you use: Chopping raw oysters is a messy affair, and you'll lose a lot of their juices to your cutting board. To prevent that, just snip them into little bits in a container using kitchen shears. Then dump the whole thing into your stuffing when you mix it all together.

The last thing to know is that because oysters will add liquid to your stuffing, you'll want to cut back on some of the other liquid in your recipe just a bit. For example, in my recipe, I added two cups of oysters and their liquid to the stuffing, and drew down the amount of chicken stock by one cup to accommodate that extra fluid. If you're using your own stuffing recipe, adjust accordingly.

As for the stuffings themselves, I based my recipes on Kenji's classic sage and sausage white-bread recipe and my Southern-style cornbread dressing, with some minor tweaks. I slightly reduced the amount of sausage in each to give the oysters a little more room to shine, and I took a different aromatic direction, adding diced fennel and minced tarragon to the mix, since I find those anise-y flavors very oyster-friendly. But you can pretty much add oysters to any stuffing you want, whether it's packed with sausage or ham, chestnuts or mushrooms, sage or thyme. Here's the version I developed with white bread.

Oyster and wheat bread stuffing in a casserole dish.
Wheat-bread oyster stuffing.

Serious Eats / Vicky Wasik

So what are you waiting for? Get shucking! Or don't, and just pop the top on a pre-shucked pint. I'm pretty sure our oyster-stuffed forebears won't hold it against you.

Oyster cornbread dressing in a casserole dish.
Cornbread oyster dressing.

Serious Eats / Vicky Wasik

1:58

How to Shuck an Oyster

November 2015

Recipe Facts

Active: 60 mins
Total: 2 hrs
Serves: 8 to 10 servings

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Ingredients

  • 1 recipe Southern-Style Unsweetened Cornbread (about 2 1/2 pounds; 1 1/4kg), cut into 3/4-inch dice

  • 1 stick unsalted butter (113g), plus more for greasing dish

  • 1 pound (500g) sweet Italian sausage, removed from casing

  • 1 large onion, finely chopped (about 2 cups; 300g)

  • 2 large stalks celery, finely chopped (about 1 cup; 200g)

  • 1/2 medium fennel bulb, finely chopped (about 1 cup; 200g)

  • 2 medium cloves garlic, minced (about 2 teaspoons; 10g)

  • 1 teaspoon minced fresh thyme

  • 3 cups homemade chicken stock or low-sodium broth (700ml), divided

  • 4 large eggs

  • 2 tablespoons minced fresh tarragon leaves

  • 1/4 cup minced flat-leaf parsley leaves (about 1/4 ounce; 8g), divided

  • 2 cups raw oysters and their liquor (470 milliliters; about 32 medium oysters), oysters chopped (see notes)

  • Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper

Directions

  1. Adjust oven racks to lower-middle and upper-middle positions. Preheat oven to 425°F (218°C). Spread cornbread evenly over 2 rimmed baking sheets. Stagger sheets on oven racks and bake until lightly toasted, about 10 minutes. Remove from oven and allow to cool.

  2. In a large Dutch oven, melt butter over medium-high heat until foaming subsides, about 2 minutes, without allowing butter to brown. Add sausage and mash with stiff whisk or potato masher to break up into fine pieces (largest pieces should be no bigger than 1/4 inch). Cook, stirring frequently, until only a few bits of pink remain, about 8 minutes. Add onion, celery, fennel, garlic, and thyme and cook, stirring frequently, until vegetables are softened, about 10 minutes. Remove from heat and add half of chicken stock.

  3. Whisk remaining chicken stock, eggs, tarragon, and 3 tablespoons parsley in a medium bowl until homogeneous. Stirring constantly with a wooden spoon, slowly pour egg mixture into sausage mixture. Add cornbread cubes, oysters, and oyster liquor and fold gently until evenly mixed. Season lightly with salt and pepper.

    Stirring up oyster stuffing ingredients with a wooden spoon.

    Serious Eats / Vicky Wasik

  4. Transfer dressing to a buttered 9- by 13-inch rectangular baking dish or 10- by 14-inch oval dish. The dressing can be covered with aluminum foil and refrigerated for up to 2 days at this point (the flavor will improve as it sits). When ready to bake, preheat oven to 375°F (191°C). Uncover dressing and bake until an instant-read thermometer reads 150°F (66°C) when inserted into center of dish and dressing is crisped on top, about 45 minutes. Remove from oven, let cool for 5 minutes, sprinkle with remaining parsley, and serve.

Special Equipment

Two rimmed baking sheets, 9- by 13-inch rectangular baking dish (or 10- by 14-inch oval dish), stiff wire whisk or potato masher, instant-read thermometer

Notes

You can shuck your own fresh oysters (see the video above for instructions), ask your fishmonger to do it, or buy containers of raw shucked oysters. Our tests showed that the stuffing tastes just as good with pre-shucked oysters as with freshly shucked. The easiest way to chop the oysters is to snip them in a container using kitchen shears; that way you don't lose their juices to the cutting board.

Nutrition Facts (per serving)
667 Calories
28g Fat
67g Carbs
36g Protein
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Nutrition Facts
Servings: 8 to 10
Amount per serving
Calories 667
% Daily Value*
Total Fat 28g 36%
Saturated Fat 11g 54%
Cholesterol 241mg 80%
Sodium 1613mg 70%
Total Carbohydrate 67g 24%
Dietary Fiber 1g 5%
Total Sugars 4g
Protein 36g
Vitamin C 18mg 88%
Calcium 353mg 27%
Iron 12mg 65%
Potassium 808mg 17%
*The % Daily Value (DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a food serving contributes to a daily diet. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice.
(Nutrition information is calculated using an ingredient database and should be considered an estimate.)