Equipment: What's the Difference Between a Skillet and a Sauté Pan?
Each week J. Kenji Lopez-Alt will drop by with a list of tools or a tool you might want to stock your kitchen with—if you haven't already. Kenji also writes The Food Lab column here on SE. You can fan The Food Lab on Facebook for play-by-plays on his future kitchen tests and recipe experiments.—The Mgmt.
The difference between a sauté pan and a skillet is a subtle but important one, and it all comes down to shape. A sauté pan, from the French verb meaning "to jump" (sauter) has a wide flat bottom, and relatively tall, vertical sides. A skillet, on the other hand, has sides that flare outward at an angle. But the real question is, when should you use each one, and do you really need both?
The difference in shape affects five main factors: surface area, volume, weight, tossing ability, and evaporation.
Pans are measured according to the diameter of the lip, not the diameter of the cooking surface. Most home burners can only comfortably fit a pan of around 12-inches in diameter. Because of its straight sides, a 12-inch sauté pan will also have a large, 12-inch wide cooking surface (about 113 square inches). A skillet, on the other hand, loses at least an inch on each side, making the effective cooking area only 10-inches wide (about 79 square inches). That means that given a skillet and sauté pan of equal diameter, the skillet will have 30% less cooking area than the sauté pan. That's not an insignificant amount.
I can quite comfortably fit 12 pieces of chicken in a 12-inch sauté pan—a task that takes two batches with a skillet.
Again, the straight sides of a sauté pan allow you to fit a higher volume of liquid into the same amount of oven space. Straight sides also make it less likely to splash out as you move the pan around or transfer it in and out of the oven. It also allows the lid to fit more tightly, minimizing evaporation. This extra volume is a great boon when performing tasks like shallow-frying a pan full of meatballs in a 1/2 inch of oil or braising a dozen chicken thighs in white wine.
Because of its wide base, a sauté pan is significantly heavier than the equivalent skillet, often necessitating the addition of a "helper handle" on the opposite side of the main handle to facilitate lifting and moving. While this weight is no problem when the pan is sitting still on the stove top or oven, the lighter weight of a skillet makes it superior for shaking and stirring to promote even cooking of vegetables or pieces of chopped meat.
Ironically, a skillet is actually far superior at sautéeing food than a sauté pan. To properly sautée, small to medium sized pieces of food are cooked rapidly in hot fat while constantly stirring. The sloping sides of a skillet allow you to easily shake the pan, performing the jump-flip maneuver that cooks like to show off with. It's more than just ego-padding though. It's the most efficient way to redistribute the food in the pan, ensuring even cooking for all pieces.
While it is possible to sauté in a straight-sided sauté pan, it's not easy, requiring constant stirring and turning with a wooden spoon or spatula.
The geometry of a pan can affect how easily moisture is driven off of food, and how rapidly a sauce will reduce. It's often claimed that the sloped sides of a skillet help moisture exuded by cooking meats evaporate more rapidly, allowing you to sear more efficiently. And this is true, but only given the same cooking area. In other words, a 12-inch skillet with a 10-inch cooking area will sear foods more efficiently than a 10-inch sauté pan. The corollary to this, of course, is that given an equal amount of food that needs searing over super high heat (some steaks, for example), the large surface area of a sauté pan does not offer any significant advantages over a skillet—you'll still have to cook in just as many batches.
Same goes for reducing sauces—sauces will reduce just as fast in a 12-inch sauté pan as in a 12-inch skillet.
So Which One Is It?
When it comes down to it, as far as high-temperature (as for steaks) searing goes, both pans are equally efficient. A skillet offers advantages when sautéing, and a sauté pan offers advantages when shallow frying, moderate-temperature searing (as for chicken pieces), or braising. In an ideal world, you'd have both, but if I had to pick one, I'd go with the skillet, as sautéing is a step in nearly every recipe I make.
Whichever pan you choose, there are a few things to keep in mind while shopping.
- Look for triple-layer construction. Triple-layer products generally consist of a layer of aluminum clad between two layers of stainless steel. Aluminum transmits heat very rapidly, while stainless steel heats much more slowly and can maintain its temperature better when cold foods are added to it. Put these two characteristics together, and you've got a pan that heats evenly, and maintains its heat for more even sautéing and searing
- Avoid disk-bottomed pans. Disk-bottomed pans are stainless steel pans with an aluminum disk welded to the bottom of them. Conceptually they work the same way as clad products but the disks have a tendency to fall off. They also don't distribute heat to the sides of the pan.
- Look for riveted handles. Welded handles fall off with repeated use. Riveted handles should last a lifetime
- If it's your first pan, don't buy a nonstick. A nonstick pan is great for some uses. Eggs, pancakes, super delicate fish, but a stainless pan is far more versatile. You can heat it hotter, giving you a better sear. It is also superior at developing fond—the flavorful browned bits stuck to the bottom of the pan after searing that are the base for any number of pan sauces
- And the number 1 rule: You get what you pay for. Those $24.99 13-piece pan sets look like a great deal until you try sweating onions in them and find half your onions burning while the other half are raw, or realize that it doesn't retain enough heat to sear more than half a steak at a time
All-Clad remains the industry standard for high quality cookware, and their 12-inch Stainless Fry Pan with Lid is a steal these days at only $89.99. Remember, this is a pan that will last you a lifetime.
The only cheaper pans I've used that have come close to All-Clad levels are the Walmart-exclusive Tramontina Stainless line, which comes at about half the price (though with no lid). Only time will tell of the longevity of the cheaper knock-offs, however.
About the author: J. Kenji Lopez-Alt is the Chief Creative Officer of Serious Eats where he likes to explore the science of home cooking in his weekly column The Food Lab. You can follow him at @thefoodlab on Twitter, or at The Food Lab on Facebook.